In addition to the common tapeworm in dogs, or the “Diphylidium caninum”, there are other types. “Taenia” consists of several tapeworm species in dogs, acquired by eating infected sheep, rabbits or rodents. If the dog is able to obtain fish-parts, they may obtain the “Diphyllobothrium” tapeworm species from fish organs, which are found in the northern part of the United States and Canada.
Another type of tapeworm is the “Echinococcus” tapeworm, which is typically uncommon in dogs. The intermediate hosts are not fleas or lice but deer, elk, goats, sheep, cattle, swine, horses…along with a few rodents.
The main prevention that works best is to keep the dogs flea and lice free. They should also be kept from roaming unattended without owner supervision. Otherwise, they have a tendency to eat dead animals which may have fleas, lice or rodents that are infected with the tapeworms. Many dogs also eat animal feces, with the same results. Quite a few veterinarians suggest to avoid consuming uncooked raw game and raw meats or giving it to the dogs, which is controversial to the raw food diet many dog owners advocate.
Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis. Both the parasite and the disease are commonly known as “Crypto.”
There are many species of Cryptosporidium that infect humans and animals. The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very tolerant to chlorine disinfection.
While this parasite can be spread in several different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common method of transmission. Cryptosporidium is one of the most frequent causes of waterborne disease among humans in the United States.
The domestic animal of most importance as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum is clearly cattle.
Clearly cattle may serve as a major source for environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum. But is Cryptosporidium parvum DIRECTLY zoonotic from cattle to humans?:
You can get hookworms by walking barefoot over contaminated soil. In penetrating your skin, the hookworm larvae (immature worms) may cause an allergic reaction. It is from the itchy patch at the place where the larvae entered your body that the early infection came to be known as ”ground itch.”
Once larvae have broken through your skin, they enter your bloodstream and are carried to your lungs. Unlike ascarids, another form of parasitic roundworm, hookworms do not usually cause pneumonia.
The larvae migrate from your lungs to your windpipe and are then swallowed and carried back down to your small intestine.
Indications for Laser Therapy
The most common Laser Therapy indications are:
There are two primary forms of vitamin D in nature. The first has been classified as vitamin D2, with the technical name of ergocalciferol. This form of vitamin D is easily used by dogs, humans and most mammals, but it cannot be used by birds. Vitamin D2 occurs mainly in plant sources in nature. Thus, any bird diet that is composed solely of plant products, such as seeds, greens, fruits, vegetables, etc., will not contain any vitamin D that is useful for the birds. When a provitamin compound called ergosterol is irradiated with short wavelength ultraviolet light, it changes in form to become ergocalciferol, vitamin D2, and this is the form that is added to milk to increase its vitamin D content. Any bird that is maintained on a diet that contains only vitamin D2 will soon suffer from the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency.
For birds, only the form of this vitamin called cholecalciferol or vitamin D3 is biologically available. Vitamin D3 is found only in animal products such as eggs, milk, insects, and liver. Since this is the only form that birds can use, a seed diet must contain a food from an animal source rich in vitamin D3 to provide enough of this vitamin for the birds’ health and reproduction. Any birds that are exposed to direct sunlight for at least an hour a day will be able to synthesize their own vitamin D on the skin.